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B` C ֬X ٳ ь 28(2006$ 6) D E @  @̘B` Conwnm ֕ * DE@ ̘Gonwn{B`)C m ) ƌ(U. S. Sentencing Commission) DE@ &̘B`5C nf  **$ t *** D03>3E@-̘G nf)HB`6C @ * t @ m ƌ 2004. 11. \ 0 ‰ 15D (Fifteen years of Guidelines Sentencing)X 1 0Introduction to the Sentencing Reform Act0D \ t. (klh%www.usscklh.gov/15-year/15year.htm). D AE ̘C̘( ̘G klh%www.ussc;1;0;0TEIB` C  ** ̜͜)0̭ ɭ ǀ. D E @ ̘B` C @*** Y)0̭ . D E @P̘B`DE@ 5LLp̘B` C  lbt DE@<66-p̘G lbt#*—36DMH` ;;B`D E @ddUP|:H` ~B`D E @ddUPH` ?-?B`C v !k D   E @LLp<H` ~B`D E @ddUPH` <<B`D E @ddUP;H` K B`D E @ddUPH` K B`D E @ddUPH` 55B`D E @H` c9c9B`D E @H8H` ::B`D E @d9H` 55B`D E @H` B`D E @ddUPH` B`D E @ddUPH`5(RR 5B`  C dloc D E @8G dlocH`I)RRIB`@2 C dloc`!.֕X Ŭ D  E @8FF G dlocB` C @1. X ̿ D E @DB`@C 2.֕X  D E @ DB`@2 C @a!.֕X \@  D E @FF B` @C 1.X \ D E @@DB` @C `2.֌X  D E @DH`I)RRIB` C b!. ƌ X\ ֕X ‰ D E @8FF B`@C 1.0D 0\  D E @DB`@C `2.x D XՔ ) D E @ DB`@2 C `c!. ¤\X l1ƌ D E @FF B`@C @1.0 X l1ƌ D E @@DB`@C @2.0 ‰X l1ƌ D E @DH`5(RR 5B` D E @8H` 5 5B`D E @T@H` IIB`D E @T@HH` IIB`D E @T@HH` 55B`D E @T@B` DE@LLp̘ELLp̘MLLp̘nULLp̘B`/ CE֕@ 8\ t踴 ų 0lx )ƌX =$D p\  XX ǰD >D  . ֕@  | \ ƌ| =$X, ƌ\ X    ֌, P t X \D ̹q¤Дp Ő ij x | !`  ǔ D ȹ((28 U.S.C. 991(b)(2)) `  ǔ  l   \(28 U.S.C. 995(a)(12)) D ½Xij] X. ƌ֔,  ֬(@ ( x ٳ \ X  X t| \ \ (28 U.S.C. 991(b)(1)(c)) XՔ  ED ½X| \.  pm@ P, 2080  t t@ @ t 8D Yx )<\ tհX0 X, H\ X %(impulse)D X . ųx ƌD =$XՔ @, E½ Ǵ X  Ȱ Jij] ƥ%<\0 (\ p 81D #0 X X t 8XՔ t. D wE*]LLp̘(dLLp̘TlLLp̘^tLLp̘|LLp̘փLLp̘LLp̘RNLLp̘ LLp̘ƢLLp̘LLp̘>LLp̘B`<C'2080  ֬(X X %@ 0X @ PTX X <\ Ь(Rothman, 1983). %@ ֌D XՔ t|  ȐD D XՔ <\ T¤Д 0<\ Pt  . t\ \  )X x ƌ\ )ij  ɉ ij H. XY  -¬Y(social-psychological) 8t X̸  ų\D HXij] ƭX, 0\ xX  0@ 8 XX   ȐX ǬT ij 0| XɌ . DELLp̘*LLp̘\rLLp̘.LLp̘LLp̘LLp̘xLLp̘B`HCi1970DŔ PTX t \ L@ pX<ǘ(Allen, 1981), 8 ƌ \ L@ Dň. X D Ȳ ǔ ֐@,  ) (therapeutic state) \  \ Ǭ<\ |0\  @ h \ 1t X(Kittrie, 1971; Twentieth Century Fund Task Force on Criminal Sentencing, 1976), Px(correctional) X̸ \X (1 \ U\ p qtɐ(Martinson, 1974), 0 \ )HD >D|̹ XՌ . ) ֕pmD iլTXՐǔ H (ALI, 1962; ABA, 1968, 1979; Nat'l Comm. on Reform of Federal Criminal Law, 1971),  \ Hij h. Marvin Frankel ӬX ƥ% ǔ ,  ֬;  Ŕ (Criminal Sentences : Law Without Order)   ) ƌX 0 (\ ɷD X0 \ ųx ƌ =$t ȥ. t\ \ Xx D< XX, ǬT \ XYx xt `t 0 Xx(technocratic) 8x \ Ŕp, t\ \ xX,  X 1 QXՔ ֌ (Von Hirsch, 1976),   ֬X DD \͌T Xt \ | \TXՔp i\ ֌ (Becker, 1968)D H`  . D,6E$4LLp̘2LLp̘^&LLp̘h.LLp̘$6LLp̘=LLp̘IELLp̘uXMLLp̘ULLp̘\LLp̘7dLLp̘cHlLLp̘tLLp̘{LLp̘|LLp̘8LLp̘F6B`CT֕X pmt X D X ǔ ļij\, Ŭ  8  X<\ ĒD JŔ Ӭ \ XǐX D д ǔ pmij . 0  ) ƌX ɷD tǔ t 买 ɔ\ <\ XijŔp, \ ɷ@  4 Xt U췰p , | XՔp D(x <\ ŨL0 L8t. nf ƌ֔ \, XnjX  L,  ι@ @ Ǵ --- X ɔ1D \ X XՔ D `ij] X(28 U.S.C. 994(c)). ֕Ŕ, ƌ XՔ ι@ 8x ht ǔp,   X 1 \ ٳX  D $X| X,  \ xX |0 X  D $X| \䲔 ht (28 U.S.C. 991(c)). ɔ\ <\, ƌ 0D ¤ `  ǔ \D ɔ t, ֕@, Xnj mt \ \Ԑt ƌX 1ƌ XX  0 Xnj   ܭ tX 4t  D 买 XՌ X ǔp, t XŔ ƌX  Xnj \ ļ: )֬ĬX (Special Report to Congress : Mandatory Penalties in the Federal Criminal Justice System. USSC, 1991b) |X. X  X  tX ̿ J@ 4, 8Ō DŽXՔ x 0% tX 4@ 1984DX ֕t ȹɹ<\ LL  |tǘ Ǖ t 0T xt . t\ 4<\ xt Ǖ \ P PׄX t , X, D X 1X$ \@ \ \| 1X0 X ̹䴴8| XՔ lp, P P Ǵ P Pׄ tX  t  Ǖt t踴Ɍ . DW,E\LLp̘)LLp̘ULLp̘LLp̘xLLp̘4LLp̘2LLp̘]&LLp̘h.LLp̘$6LLp̘=LLp̘FWB`DE@ELLp̘B` C2. ֕X  DE@XM~~̘B`DE@nULLp̘B`~ CO֕ ǕX Ŭ XŔ 䲑\ tt Ǵ T. |ǀ YՐ@ t Ǖt, D] \ͅx D  L }X t ̹, l \ ij\ XtD t \ X ɷD XՔ X ƌD hX ǔ,  iլT Ǵ $ J@ ̬t| (Miller & Wright, 1999). x YՐ@,  Ht, \ 1975D Edward Kennedy XX L  Xx ̬ PXՌ Ř, ֌X ũ1D ¤ ļ ȐX 1D $XՔ ӬX ɷD 0XՔ - (a law-and-order measure)<\  \(Stith & Koh, 1993). , pX D ɷX @ D X ̹䴴  Ǖ@ ɔ\ 8\ (ambiguities)D hX ǔp, t\ !tt Ʃ Ǵ \ ɷD X \X ƌŌ ƌ =pXଐ XՔ )<\ 0X D 1XՔ ɷD XՌ 䲔  X ι@ t ٳX\(Feinberg, 1993; Miller & Wright, 1999; Hofer & Allenbaugh, 2003). DE@*]LLp̘,dLLp̘YlLLp̘^tLLp̘|LLp̘փLLp̘LLp̘GNLLp̘ LLp̘ƢLLp̘LLp̘ >LLp̘7LLp̘B`C\ͅ<\ ֕t  `HŔ, X Ž H\ \ XՔ Ht Dňnj . t `H@, 1984D 10 12| <\ ɉX Ȁưɜ xX \ <\  ǕT0L } 10D ٳH ĬX . \ͅH@ \ H H , ι@ ɔ\  t@ tX Hij (t . DE@ LLp̘*rLLp̘Z.LLp̘LLp̘LLp̘B`DE@xLLp̘B` $C  lbt D'E@4HG lbt#*x~lHM`H` RRRRB` )C ֕  D E @,LLF B`*C 1971D 1 H )֕X D \ mƌ(tx,  Brown Commission ) | \\.  ƌ, X X  T, U X U\ ]T, iՔ Ǵ ֌D <\ iհXՔ \ \, 0 l\ ), \t̹ mՌ ǀ <\ XՔ D X. D E @ R=xRdRRd%RB`*C 1971D 11 T )) ӬtX Marvin E. Frankel(S.D.N.Y.)t ´ \ Xt , P )D lX0 \ mƌ| $XX, \ lX 0 ܭHD ̹ , XnjX pX t| ǕTXՐ ȥX. D E `.RA5Re;RLBRB`*C 21971-1974D  ֕  ֬ ƌ(Subcommittee on Criminal Laws and Procedures) |ƌX HD \. ƌ֔ 92( 0 ٳH 8| , 93( 0 P ǕH D ޹: 1973DX ֬Ĭ 9T,   ֕(The Criminal Justice Codification, Revision, and Reform Act of 1973, S.1.) , 1973DX ֬` ֕H(The Criminal Code Reform Act of 1973, S. 1400)t t.  H@ ܭ\ ֌ pmD DXՔ D . ƌ֘ 0 \ @ . D E HKRFQRrXR4_ReR|lR? sRhyRB`e*C 1975D  | \ Pt(lXՄ X X) 0D XՔ ƌX =$,  \ mՌX , )X | X. D E R2dRYRB`v*C 1975D 11 T $ Xt 94( Xnj 0 ٳH, 0D XՔ ) ƌ| =$` ι@ 9X \ ܭD tij] XՔ X H(S. 2699)D Ȝ\. D E R8R\LRB`*C 1976D 5 H 1976DX )ƌ  p \ `(The Parole Commission and Reorganization Act of 1976)t . t `@, 1974D0 ‘ )  |\ 0(guidelines)D ȩX TX, )ƌX \D T\ t. D 1[E HRARwRRB`*C 1977-1978D  Xnj 95 0, MaClellan X Kennedy Xt, )֕D 18TX, )D \Xp, 0D 0XՔ ƌ| ½XՔ X H(S. 1437)D X\.  S. 1437t D \. t 0|, Xƕƌ X ֬ƌ  H x H X 8| <ǘ, ι@ 8D XՌ , T t t t踴 JX. D E R@DReR#R0*R0RB`d*C ,1979-1980D  Xnj 96( 0 ٳH, S. 1437 t D\, ƌ| =$X̹ )D X ųpt(supervised) )X PD \ 1979D ֬`ȕH(S. 1722)t Ȝ. Xƕƌ֔ ֕H(H.R.6915)D xXƔp, H@ D<\ |XՔ 7xX  \ Xƌ(Judicial Conference Committee) XX 0D \` D HX , 0<\0 tXՔp p 1D X XՔ t X ȥXՔ ǥ@, t \ 0D ¬ %D ǔp, 0D ¤Д ij t ֬ D \ 4 (ܭYD | XՔ ĒD ǔ Ǭ\ t| \. XXX |ǀ  0D ¤Дp p `D @( Ӭt T |t, XՌ t| ȩ`   | ȥX. nf 췘,  XX ǥ@  8X \ p ǔ \ X D tհXij] XՔp \ p D . nf Xnj֔,  X %\ | XՔ 䲔( άȲD   Ǖ<\ 0\ U\ լX ǔ ,  Xnj Ǵ X\D XՔ ǕD h<\h լXՔ @ @ %\ ) Ǖ@ Ȁ 买 \ Ĭ| ɔ ųx ƌ| $XXՔ D X. D*ELLp̘*xLLp̘V4LLp̘LLp̘&LLp̘h.LLp̘$6LLp̘F=LLp̘rELLp̘XMLLp̘ULLp̘G nf)HB`I C onta H.R. Rep. No. 1017, 98th Congress, 2nd Session, at 93-94(1984). D E @̘G onta)G nf)HB`! C onta Cong. Q., 1983, at 339. D E @̘G onta)B`DE@\LLp̘B` C  lbt DE@dLLpG lbt#*alHM`H` RRRRB`-C )ƌ D E @LLF  B` D E @PRB` C @ƌX ,\Ԍ ǔ  7@ 9 XX Dž, XX xp, 0 ńt թ JŔ 6Dt. ƌŔ, 9t )Xnj ͜\ 6X ӬX D $\ \ )Ӭt m h. ƌŔ 1X Xǥ 3X Xǥt . D E R-R\<R!RB` C `\\ 4LX , \\ 2X Xǥt @   . 0ͥ  Ʌ\ t ,\Ԍ Ŕ 4 t  p, ))ƌ ƥX ij ȹ,t. @ \\ 2 0| D̸  . 0 ] ij Xnj 40\ 0XՔ tp \ t Dž LLɔ Ĭ D ‰` ij . ƌ Et 0 XŔ 4X ,1\ DՔX. D E (R.(/R^5Rp<RCRIRB` C Lǀ0 L 4X ƥt . ) 4 mՌ Ӭx William W. Wilkins;  ȲD Middle Distirct )) Ӭx Richard P. Conaboy; ) 8mՌ Ӭx Diana E. Murphy; ( 1 ) ֬ ƥx MѬ Southern District )) Ӭx Ricardo H. Hinojosa t. D E \PR2WRtRRB`g"*DE@fLLp̘B`.UE C . 8x 0X 0 DE@"~~LB`DE@8#LLp̘B`CZ)֕@ Ǖ  (<\, D XՔ ӬŌ Ȉ ɔ\ ɷD XՔ x 买 \x ɷD Ȕ x\ X.  ļ (states)X 0 Ĭ  8(voluntarily(; Ő : 0D 0t t ӬX  XǬ Ṩɔ)) ,  (advisory) x 0  (presumptive) ,  (mandatory) x L 䲑X(BJA, 1998).   X Ĭ tX t@, Ӭ  0 Ř | ܭ(XՔ 0, , \ t X mՌ ¬ t踴ɔ ij Ǵ PܴɌ М. \ )H@ mՌX ǀ \<\ t踴ɔ x 0D lX. 1978D X X , ̹}  t, ƌ 0D ̹ܴp Ǵ XՌ $ J@ <\ ̹} $Xt ܭ x  ttD (   | XՔ) iD >DŴ Xt, Ӭt 0 tǴX  Xij] lXՔ 0t gL. nf tǃ@ 0D  x 䲔  x <\ 踴ij] X0 \ t(Miller & Wright, 1999). X t0D DTX$ Ĭ ij <ǘ P (Stith & Koh, 1993). DE!*LLp̘*2LLp̘Vl:LLp̘(BLLp̘ILLp̘QLLp̘+\YLLp̘WaLLp̘hLLp̘pLLp̘LxLLp̘ LLp̘7ćLLp̘kLLp̘<LLp̘G nf)HB`Z C @ onta 124 Cong. Rec. 382-83 (1978) (unprinted amend. No. 1100, adopted Jan. 23, 1978). D E @̘G onta)B`C֕ \ͅH@ \, Ӭ ܭ X  x XՔ Ŕ ٳx mՌD XՔ pmD P (18 U.S.C. 3742). LLp̘LLp̘LLp̘rLLp̘G nf )HB`* C @onta S. 1437, supra note 3, at 124. D E @̘F G onta )B`sC`. \ @ t, ֕Ŕ, Ӭ@ \ D XՔ t 0|  U\ ǔ 0tǘ E ܭ  nf XX | \䲔 XǐX PD \ pmt . ֕Ŕ \, 0 X  3 D(Three-Strikes-You're-Out) ܭt h ǔp,  ܭ@  ȹ}tǘ %X թ \ͥ0  \ͥ0 XՔ X | lXՔ pmt(28 U.S.C. 994(h)).  2 Ȕ @ t, ֕@ m ) ɔȐ \ 0D 20\ p 0\ 0D ¨. DELLp̘+LLp̘^xLLp̘4LLp̘LLp̘&LLp̘%h.LLp̘R$6LLp̘G nf )HB`K C ` onta 130 Cong. Rec. 1644, 838(1984)(statement of Sen. Storm Thurmond). D E @̘G onta )B`DE@=LLp̘B` C`|. D ܭXՔ )<\ DE@E~~̘B`DE@MLLp̘B`) C E\ͅ<\, X (charge selection),  t X \| \Xp )`  䲔 ǥt 0X YĬ ȑLLp̘4LLp̘eLLp̘rLLp̘LLp̘LLp̘xLLp̘B4LLp̘mLLp̘&LLp̘B`/ CE <0X , t \ ɷD Ō tٳ´<\ )X D ¬  䲔 \ XnjX D 0(Schulhofer & Nagel, 1989). t\ 1D Xt, Xnj֔  X | Ő ij DTX D. @ ĬX x HD X, ƌ, D D| x ŀ X, l% ǔ 0D XՔ 䲔 E ܭ(policy statements)D Xij] X. t ܭ@ ֕ 28 U.S.C. 994(a)(2)(E) pm \ h.  ܭ@ ƌ,  xǀD Dtp pXՔ t )֬ܭY 11(e)(2) ܭ 0|  \ X \ X, \ E ܭD \Xij] X. ֕ \ ,  t\ ht, 0D htXՔ D X JX䲔 D Uˆ X0 X Ӭ t| ¬`  䲔  D Uˆ X| \ $X nf DEh.LLp̘*$6LLp̘P=LLp̘ELLp̘XMLLp̘ULLp̘\LLp̘OdLLp̘~HlLLp̘tLLp̘{LLp̘|LLp̘G nf )HB`- C onta Senate Report, supra note 1, at 63. D "E @̘G onta )B`C1984D ֕t tt 9 XX  `\ 0  t t H@ } 10DX 0D p. ֕@ XnjX \D Lt  D t|` ̈́\ t   nf ) ִĬ|  X0 X H. DE8LLp̘,LLp̘ZLLp̘G nf )HB`  C onta Id. D  E @̘G onta )B`DE@lLLp̘B`G C@a!. ֕X \@  DE@('̘FB`D E@LLp̘B` C`9\ ¤\D \ ֕ ܭ \@ X t 1tŔ ŀ| XՔ @ 0D \. t\ \@ P \ . Ȕ,  ǴX \\, ֌ Ǵ U1 ,҅1 \ D pXՔ t. t\ \D 1XՔ ¤\X (1 \ l X 8  踔 t. P Ȕ, <\ ֌, , ǩ  ǬT\ } X (purposes)D 1`  ǔ ED ½XՔ t. tǔ tX ƌ  XX lX D п̹ DȲ|(Rossi & Berk, 1997)  ƌij Ĭ ɉ lt. t\ X @, ( )ȐX ǔ \ l Ŭ<  0 x ƌX  t. D ELLp̘*jLLp̘W&LLp̘LLp̘LLp̘xLLp̘ 4LLp̘?LLp̘s&LLp̘h.LLp̘B`DE@$6LLp̘B`- C1. X \(The Goals of Sentencing Reform) DE@=~~̘B`DE@ELLp̘B` C. \ D Ʉ DE@M~~̘B`DE@ULLp̘B`C@ ɔ\ X \Ԕ \  D tǔ t(Feinberg, 1993). \ D XXՔ ι@ ȑt L(Blumstein, 1983). <`, X h ǴX (ttǘ x ( t  ȐX ǴX (tD \t, ȐD 첬 XՔ t P \ @ DȲ. 췘, @ L @ D lX . DE@ ]LLp̘,@eLLp̘[lLLp̘tLLp̘t|LLp̘B`DE@0LLp̘B`C(B) X Xij iXՔ U1 hD X, |x  X ½ $ \ ƌ ɔƌ| $XՔ ļT D թX ̈́\ %1D XՔ t, Ǭ\ X \  Ǭ\ %D ̲ LLp̘,ELLp̘eMLLp̘nULLp̘*]LLp̘dLLp̘lLLp̘C^tLLp̘B`|C֕@ \, ι@ X X D XՌ ȩXij] lX. ι@ X X ɉ X  0 X 0 \ XŔ X 2 |X. DE|LLp̘*փLLp̘WLLp̘B`DE@NLLp̘B`@/G C.֌ Ǵ iլ1 ,҅1X D/E@ ~~LB` DE@ LLp̘B`CW]<\, )֕@ X iլ1, ,҅1D ¤Д D \\ X. 0 ‰ t 0 D4 0 t լX ɷD, X iX | lTtՓ@ 0x `\ h<\h, X !1t . X iլ1@, ƌ\ X  <\ \ \, ֬(@ ( x ٳ) \ X D XՔ(18 U.S.C. 991(b)(1)(C)) E 4hD ¤,  , ֌  P 4t X D 1XՔp Ő ij (x| !XՔ D ¤ij](18 U.S.C. 991(b)(2)) lh<\h T X. ,҅1@  Ӭ\ X    \ D \ t | йX , \ t X t 0]D Xij] lh<\h X(18 U.S.C. 3553(c)).  H Ǵ Ӱ pȬ(presentence report)X D 0 D<\ ȩ\ hخ,  |  \ 80|t 0 \͌\ 10| t XՔ ij m<\  X t \ ͩ <րD T x(18 U.S.C. 3553(d)). 0 ¤\X  iլ1, ,҅1 !1 XŔ X 5 |X. DE!ܪLLp̘,LLp̘XTLLp̘LLp̘LLp̘LLp̘LLp̘=xLLp̘s4LLp̘LLp̘&LLp̘ h.LLp̘7$6LLp̘c=LLp̘ELLp̘B`DE@XMLLp̘B`( C2. ֌X (The Purposes of Punishment) DE@U~~̘B`DE@*]LLp̘B`C`@ @ X \ g, ֕@, ƌ\ X  U.S.C Title 18, section 3553(a)(2) ܭ ǔ X  ޹ )֬ E 4(D ½Xij] hD (18 U.S.C. 991(b)).  section p ǔ X D t L . DE dLLp̘)lLLp̘e^tLLp̘|LLp̘B`DE@փLLp̘B`80C(A) X D X, \ tD Xp, \ \ ֌D X, DELLp.NLLpB`-C(B)  \ \ %(X, deterrence)D X, DE@ LLp̘B`C(C) LLpB`DE@LLp̘B`@! C.D@1 : Q\ ֌ D&E@~~LB`DE@LLp̘B` C70X pX , ҈ tX 2, 3@, ֌X D X 1 D@Xij] ޹ʹ8 . X 1D TXՔ <\,  Ȕ  0 (base offense level) <\ X. , x ƌ, LLp̘FLLp̘B`=C'0‰ 15D X \ <\, ƌ֔ )ȐX ǔ( \ ɔ\  l| ‰X.  )ȐX ǔ \ l¬ 1 \<\  t\ lX ǔ1X ij\ Ƚ%X 1D UxX (USSC, 2004). t\ ̸ \ x @, ƌ Ƚ%| 촴 T T U\ ǔ ! xǐ\ ̹ij] t t. 䲑\ l 0X Xx , , ȵ| \ 0 x ƌX Xx | XՔ x l \ ɉ t. DELLp̘+rLLp̘X.LLp̘LLp̘LLp̘xLLp̘4LLp̘B`DE@LLp̘B` C. ǬT DE@&~~̘B`DE@.LLp̘B`CS֕@ Ӭ D ` L, LLp̘XELLp̘MLLp̘nULLp̘*]LLp̘dLLp̘HlLLp̘~^tLLp̘|LLp̘փLLp̘LLp̘CNLLp̘n LLp̘B`DE@ƢLLp̘B` Cb!. ƌ X\ ֕X ‰ DE@'̘FB`DE@LLLp̘B`6C&\ ƌ  X\ ι@ ȑt t Ż )֕X hD ‰XƔ X 8 L$ (Breyer, 1988; Nagel, 1990; Wilkins, 1992a; Corrothers, 1992). 0 t\ x% X 8\ D X$ Xɔ J<ǘ, ƌX Ŭ X \X J@ ųD X 0t \  \ \ }D X$ \. ȹ,\ 0X ٳ) X \X J@ D X 0 0| D XՔ ) \ ij . DELLp̘)LLp̘`LLp̘<LLp̘LLp̘LLp̘xLLp̘B`DE@4LLp̘B` C1. 0D 0\  DE@~~̘B`DE@'LLp̘B`  C.  \ Y DE@.~~̘B`DE@6LLp̘B` C4֕@ ƌ\ X ^  X \ X D ¤Д 0D ̹ij] X. ֠Y@ L  t ι@ `t t踴 . ƌ $ L 18 ٳH, x 0 t  `Ŕp, X @ Qt`(desert theory), \ ֌ \ Y t`(economics-based theory of optimal penalties) @ \ x t` Ƭ 0X ½(Nagel, 1990). t\ Ő Hij t| ©X0 \ D\ $ݴ%D XՐ, ƌ֔ X D X0\ X(t\  \ ȴx ` XŔ Breyer, 1988 8p). DE@>LLp̘)PFLLp̘T NLLp̘ULLp̘]LLp̘@eLLp̘ lLLp̘StLLp̘~t|LLp̘B`# C`Dƌ T <\ ֠YD Xɔ JX̹, 0 ܭ@ 买 U\ hD д (Bowman, 1996; Hofer & Allenbaugh, 2003). X 0 @ ȹ,\, )0@ \X  ֌ \ ȩͨx(consensus model) (Frese, 2003), ,  \ QX(limiting retributivism) X | X (Morris, 1977). t\ )@ X 1 Q\ ֌D 买 pXՌ , t\ QXX @ (parameters) X, ǔ` $ 买 \ Ȑ \ 0X lt p. |ǀ YՐ@ t\ )D    Q(modified just desert) | x(Monahan, 1982). ƌ֔, 0 \@ hخ \X (Supplementary Report), t\ x X l\ YՐD XՔ t X (USSC, 1987, 16). DE0LLp̘)LLp̘aLLp̘dLLp̘ LLp̘ ܪLLp̘2LLp̘dTLLp̘LLp̘LLp̘LLp̘B`@!G C .p 4 ǔ \ ̸ tǩ DE@~~LB`DE@LLp̘B` C@C\ ƌ֔, ´ ֬ 18ܭ, ) )ƌX 0, |  ǔ D hXՔ $m pX 0D 0X. 췘, ɔ\ |XX @ 0 ‰ tX 4 \ Ĭ t. ƌ֔ 1985D  Ȑ \ 10,000t tX \0 ͜\ ̸D X, } 100,000t tX ) Ȭt<\0 ̸| X. ƌ֔ X |  X x 0D X. t\ X@  \ D ½XՌ p, tǔ \ x l @  . ɷD p tǔ 买 (t J@ ɔƌ ƌ@,  ƌX ɔij@ hخ, <\ (USSC, 1987). t\ ƌt,  ļ Ǵ 0 D , Xե<\ pXՔ,  ļ 1(specific offense characteristics) D \ 0D l1XՌ . DELLp̘-LLp̘YJLLp̘'LLp̘.LLp̘~6LLp̘:>LLp̘;ELLp̘hMLLp̘nULLp̘*]LLp̘dLLp̘B` C7ƌ֔,  t  t| XՔ \ t ٳXXՔ Ŕ pX  Ř Ĭx | |XX <\ X. \ 0@ pX 0X<ǘ, ҈ 0 ȹ} p@ @ |\ X Ŕ ɔ\ $ƌt ƌ\ X pX  Ř X. t\ $m  |ǀ 18 9<\0 T. ֕@, ƌ\ X   X Ȑ Ō  x 0X l t Xij] lX, nf 0t 0 ٳH  ι@ 18 X\  X\ ܭ@ ȹ}p 0 X ι@ ptD X. ƌ֔ \, TtǸ|| t, X ֌t DX @ Xij t| PX0 X x%X. DElLLp̘+^tLLp̘W|LLp̘փLLp̘LLp̘NLLp̘ LLp̘9ƢLLp̘eLLp̘>LLp̘G nf)HB` C onta 28 U.S.C. 994(i). D E @̘G onta)B` C;0@, п̹ DȲ|  ȐX Ƚ%ij $\. ǔD !X0 X H ȐX  Ƚ% Hij, ɔ1, X \ ŀ,  mX ųX Ŕ ŀ 0\. ƌ ¨ ܭ@, tX lLLp̘k&LLp̘h.LLp̘$6LLp̘B`DE@=LLp̘B` C. DՔ\ lTX  DE@E~~̘B`DE@MLLp̘B` C`70D ¤Дp Ǵ \ ɔ\ X8t, 0D Ő ij\ 8XՌ ȹ(X| XՔ, , ȐD XՌ (D P0 X ȹ ι@ pȔƌtǘ Ƚ% DՔ\ \ 8. D \ Ĭ  Ǵ |1D 8,  ǔ, D@1D X0 $  . |x X | 4 Ȍ XՔ @, 0D ɉX0 }Œ ` t, ɔ\ !t \ x ȐD hخ  . t\ 8@ 买 x ȐŌ @ X | lXՔ \͌ X\ 9 |0p, , | t, ȹ}p Ǵ | ɷ tX p| XՔ LŔ | Ǵ tȬ`  ǔ xǐ ǔ ŀ Ĭ t, \͌\ 10D tX | ܭXՔ   . DEnULLp̘**]LLp̘VdLLp̘lLLp̘^tLLp̘|LLp̘փLLp̘4LLp̘bNLLp̘ LLp̘B`CX\,  (X `  ǔ \  ȐX 1D $X$ XՔ ִĬ }Œ ٳ  Ō  . 0X ȩ DՔ\ X +@ 1t h 0|, pȬ ¬ DՔ\ ij X,  Ӭ XX x t $ 1ij (Ruback & Wroblewski, 2001). \ͅ<\, \ ƌ֔ t\ $mX D ޹ʹ, l 0t }) XΔ, 43X 6ĬX Ƚ%\ t踴 LtD HX. t\, LtD ̹䴴 p Ǵ, ƌ֔  25|<  t| ֕X pm 0x hD XŔp, 25|< @,    X \ @, \͌ X\ X, 6  X\X 25|< tXՔ  , T \ D $  䲔 t(the maximum of each recommended sentencing range exceed the minimum of the range by no more than six months or 25 percent of the minimum range, whichever is greater). nf t ܭ@ ȐŌ <\ @   lt ij] XՔ 买 lx 0D l\. DEƢLLp̘,LLp̘Y>LLp̘LLp̘LLp̘rLLp̘.LLp̘BLLp̘nLLp̘xLLp̘4LLp̘LLp̘`&LLp̘h.LLp̘G nf)HB`! C onta 28 U.S.C. 994(b)(2). D E @̘G onta)B`DE@$6LLp̘B`@# C`2.x D XՔ ) DE@=~~LB`DE@ELLp̘B`/C%)0 t@ @ Ǵ x (presumptive sentence)X | XՔ ܭ X X, t XijXՔ \ 0D ȩXՔ D ij@0 X x E ܭ, 0t  (background commentary), ȩ x(application notes)D hX .  t@ D , @ ƌ tǸx www.ussc.gov >D  . 0X 0x lpȔ 0 ‰ 0 ȴ ٳH \  T. D` E MLLp̘5nULLp̘`*]LLp̘dLLp̘lLLp̘^tLLp̘B`DE@|LLp̘B`G C. |x ȩ Y DE@փ~~̘B`DE@LLp̘B` C20 t 1@  ȐX ֔| X0 X 0|| XՔ ĬD X . (̔, t 2 Š\ 0t \ x   XՌ ( ȩ x| h<\ ‘XՌ (\ XՌ ( ǔ @ - | t, 0@ 0| X0\ \   Ĭ ɉ ĬX |ǀ<\X X ȹ}p - 3 Part DX   (Multiple Counts) ܭ 0|  2 1X ȉ\ ). }t \ \ x T \ | }XՔ ,  2X \ \ 0t (USSG 1B1.2.) DE@LLp̘+dLLp̘X LLp̘ܪLLp̘LLp̘TLLp̘LLp̘ELLp̘rLLp̘B`2 C@Ft 2, 3 0|   \ D (preliminary offense level)t . Š\ 0 , ļ 1, 0 P(-(1  x ļ\ ht ȩ | h Ǵ, @  ( ٳ(relevant conduct) D $\. (ٳ @ 0 ĬX   t| $TLLp̘B`0C&\, t 3@  x p ƌD ܭ\. t\ pȔƌX Ŕ: LLp̘ELLp̘MLLp̘nULLp̘*]LLp̘MdLLp̘lLLp̘^tLLp̘|LLp̘B`DE@փLLp̘B`  C|. \ͅ X  DE@~~̘B`DE@LLp̘B`jC@-Ӭ, 0D |` ̹\ t t | Ӱ t $X JŔ \, 0X  D X| \. <\ @ Ƚ% hخ \ \ | \ Ȑ XŔ, t 5 Part F l txX ЬmD ܭX . 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Xnj֔ t\ D 1X0 XŔ ˆ 0D \XՔ tX t DՔX䲔 D xX. , Ǖ, P ( m ٳx )  ij l. t\ \ ¤\X l1@ P X Ĭ, E E ‰X Ĭ\ l  . 0 Ƭ t\ ĬX l1ƌ| , ) D \ XnjX \| X0 t \ l1ƌt hخ 0Xij] Ż $Ŕ| 0\ \. DE@qLLP̘. LLP̘[LLP̘LLP̘LLP̘8LLP̘ LLP̘:pLLP̘e &LLP̘B`DE@-LLP̘B`4 C@1. 0 X l1ƌ DE@D5~~t̘B`DE@6=LLP̘B`$C% E̅HŐ, ‰Ր x ttĬx tX % D,E@DLLP̘F$B`C % 8T Y   8X \֩ D,E@nLLLP̘FB`%C% ȀX 8  ǕX  | \ Xx Ē D,E@ TLLP̘F%B`DE@[LLP̘B`%@7 C.E̅HŐ, ‰Ր x ttĬx tX % D//E@Bc~~tLB`DE@4kLLp̘B`C֕@ ǔ (observers) | <\0X XǬп̹ DȲ| ƌ ) ֬ Ĭ ǴX ɔ\  ttĬx tX % D X E  4X  D t ¬X. DErLLp̘/zLLp̘\hLLp̘B` CRƌ֔ 0<\ ƌX | D D ̸D $X 0D X X| \. ƌX 4| DX ƌX \D լh Ǵ ƌ֔ ) ֬ ijX )t ( m, \ )t \ x ǩX \Ԑtǘ 0 ǩX \Ԑ D X| \. m 80(The United States Probation System), ) Pm(the federal Bureau of Prisons), m Xnj(the Judicial Conference of the United States), m 4X ֬m(the Criminal Division of the U.S. Department of Justice), ) u 8xX \(a representative of the Federal Public Defenders) ƌ ƌX 4@ (X t \ XǬPXt ǩX D Lt, Ș Š\ D, |tǘ X8D 0` t, \͌\ D ƌ 0D ƩXՔ (X, DՔ\ TD HXp ƌ t( |D XՔ t 0 t | ȜX| \(28U.S.C. 994(o)) DE@$LLp̘(LLp̘TLLp̘XLLp̘LLp̘аLLp̘-LLp̘tHLLp̘LLp̘LLp̘|LLp̘KLLp̘uLLp̘B`7C1XՌ, ֕@ 0ijX   X 买 %x D X . DExLLp̘*4LLp̘B`4C&ƌ֔ t\ (instructions) XLj, 0 ¬ ] x 0D XՔ X՘X )@ \ \ ι@ Ĭx 貴t 8XՔ  D t t踴  Ȉ. ¤\  |XՔ X 8 D Űh<\h ƌ֔ 0t |(reason)@ ©1(practicality) 0Xij] `  . ƌ֔ mx 8D \X, ֕ h ǔ ] p 貴|  @ X ) 0X \ ̹. DELLp̘1&LLp̘\h.LLp̘$6LLp̘=LLp̘ELLp̘XMLLp̘B` C :D x ƌ֔ 80  8֬\ l1 ǐ8(Standing Advisory Groups of Probation Officers and Attorney Practitioners) п̹ DȲ| pɔ, Xֽ, m ,  x 䲑\  \ ļ8(Special Advisory Group)X pȸD Ĭt DT. 4, 4 ɅXՔ ƌX  1D X, 4X )8ƌ(United States Attorneys Advisory Committee)X ֌ƌX ij<\, ƌX @tǘ H H X ɔ\ LLp̘*LLp̘VLLp̘rLLp̘.LLp̘LLp̘LLp̘HxLLp̘u4LLp̘LLp̘&LLp̘h.LLp̘$$6LLp̘B` C :t\ ƜX ̸@ 8| x\ E (Policy Development Team)X \֩D X 0X  D \ | t Ȕp  EX 4 t ƌX   0  (USSC, 2002). t\ @, | t, 1%X ǔ \ ¬YՐ@X  ȑnj  0ŔX  ͩ X YՐ@X XՔ \ٳD hX t `@ @ ( 䲑\ l Ȭ\. m ֕  ֬(̕ ܭx 18 U.S.C. 4047X l 0| ƌ֔ 0ijX Ht ‰<\ xt X X@ 0 XΔ ƥ \ T\ xX Pȭ Š\  ƥD XΔ| X0 t ĬYx Pij ƥ x(Prison Impact Model)D \֩\. DE=LLp̘*ELLp̘\XMLLp̘ULLp̘\LLp̘dLLp̘HlLLp̘EtLLp̘q{LLp̘|LLp̘B`DE@8LLp̘B`(@!i"* C.ȀX 8 ǕX h  ¬| \ X Ē DE@~~LB`DE@ LLp̘B`C`#EX \ͅx l1ƌ ƌX \ٳ Xx ĒX p| \. ƌX \@ Xnj (. t\ Ǖ\X DŽt it0 XŔ, Xnj֔ ƌX 4| ijX0 \ \͌\X  ̸\ Y(intelligible principle) D X| \. nf Xnj֔ ֕ ƌX 0  D ȴXՔ x YD ܭh<\h XՌ Ǖ\D DŽX.  ֕@ XnjX  ųD \ X| \. D E ƢLLp̘*LLp̘W>LLp̘LLp̘LLp̘rLLp̘G nf)HB`9 C onta Mistretta v. United States, 488 U.S. 361(1989). D E @̘G onta)B` C 3췘, ƌX X ĒD \ ɔ\ XΔ ֕ 0X D X  0X | t |0 ¬(review)| Xij] XՔ pmt. ֕ $t nj |x ( XXt, ƌ֔ H HD D DՔ\ XՔ t | 0\ $@ hخ ij 5 1| t Xnj ȜX| \. ƌ֔ HX |D m Ȝ\ \0 180| ttǐ 11 1| tX \ D X| \. Xnj֔  ¬0  Ȝ HD Xp x`  . 0 ‰ 15D ٳH 674X H  P X H(lЙ Ttx @ 8 \ 0 \ H)t t\ )<\ x. DE@LLp̘+LLp̘ZxLLp̘4LLp̘LLp̘&LLp̘h.LLp̘<$6LLp̘l=LLp̘B` C10ijX ij@ Xnj\ X ƌ@ hخ  ƌ| X E ƥD `  ǔ 0@ (| X. t\ (X @ ƌX 1991D x  ) ֬ Ĭ Ǵ X4 \(Mandatory Minimum Penalties in the Federal Criminal Justice System)  |X. x ų8 xij ƌ X Dx   Ǖ8 \ ƌ 4mX  t X. Xnj֔ \ 9 X \ D \ ȩ Xij] Xp L\ Xnj X@ (X ƌ ( 0D X| \䲔 XnjX XǬ| İ<\h ED 1X T. DE@ELLp̘)XMLLp̘UULLp̘\LLp̘dLLp̘HlLLp̘"tLLp̘M{LLp̘w|LLp̘B`BC@h\, Xnj֔ ƌ X x ȕX h XXp 0ɕ Ǵ ܭ hD h<\h E ƥD X ED t T. 0ɕ ] B t\ hD - @ 2004DL ļǕt 85 tt, ι@ @ i hάmt - 0 X, t  |ǐ@ t ( X D .  X |x @ ȹ} \ 22X hάmX  , Ȭt 16X hάm<\ | 0

LLp̘FB` C% mՌX  ¬ D,E@ELLp̘F B`DE@MLLp̘B`@! C.ǝt t\ X |x 0 DE@nU~~LB`DE@]LLp̘B` C`9@ 8x P, 0ijX <\ xX, X   Š\ D XՔ 0| Š\ t  XՔ 8 )֬X ( ux ƌ  D L . Ť 8֬X й XXt  ) ֬ 4, 8xX pX ȵ @ ) 0X <\0 <\ ( (Wisenberg, 2003). \аXt, 0ij Ӭ\ X Ʌ \ XŔ \  0ij] H t0 L8, D] 0t| `|ij X ¬ 0x  | Xij] (DT(Berlin, 1993). 0̐(observers)@ \  (| pX0 t xX  \ |x 0 DՔX䲔 D xX(Schulhofer & Nagel, 1989: Edmunds, 1996). DE@eLLp̘+lLLp̘VtLLp̘t|LLp̘0LLp̘LLp̘ LLp̘9dLLp̘p LLp̘ܪLLp̘B`[C` 0ijX ‰ 00 4 E@ X 0@  4 X 1 \ ƥD |`  䲔 D xtT. nf DELLp̘)TLLp̘G nf)HB` C onta William F. Weld, m 4X 4  0ɕ \ X xܴ [tր0є Redbook] 1987. 11. 1. 8 6FED, SENT. REP. 333[tXՀ0є FSR](1994). D E ̘B̘G onta)B`C"\ ijX LLp̘bLLp̘LLp̘rLLp̘LLp̘LLp̘:xLLp̘l4LLp̘LLp̘&LLp̘h.LLp̘G nf)HB`' C onta USSG, Ch 1, Pt. A, sec. 4(a). D E @̘G onta)B` C? ƌ֔ LLp̘jLLp̘xLLp̘4LLp̘LLp̘&LLp̘Gh.LLp̘t$6LLp̘B`DE@=LLp̘B`@!G C.֕X \ iXՔ ,҅\  DE@E~~LB`DE@MLLp̘B` C`8(x X DՔ1<\ xt t m  Ǵ ӰD XՔ |x )<\ x. 0ɕt ‰0  40D ٳH, ) Ǵ D 85|<@ 90|< tX Ӱt  m(nolo contendere) ((BJS, Sourcebook, 1987: AO Annual Report, 1987). 0ij \ ǩX0 t ܴ D hX Ǵ| X LLp̘LLp̘LLp̘rLLp̘.LLp̘BLLp̘B` C0\ X. DE$XMLLp̘*ULLp̘[\LLp̘dLLp̘HlLLp̘tLLp̘{LLp̘B|LLp̘n8LLp̘LLp̘LLp̘lLLp̘#(LLp̘PLLp̘}LLp̘LLp̘G nf")HB`2 C @onta USSC, Supplementary Report, at 49(1987). D E @̘G onta")G nf#)HB`  C onta Id. D  E @̘G onta#)B`3 C`Fƌ֔ USSG 3E1.1  ĒX x(Acceptance of Responsibility) 0 xX 1\ xǔƌ| X. t\ 0@ xD \ ȐŌ (reward)<\, \ | xX X <\ x\ tED ¤Д pX| \ ȐX E1D ¨ \ x, X | X H t. 0@, ̹} <$ U@ t t. 18 U.S.C. 3553(b)D ¨1 nj XՔ @, 1XՌ D 0t$  ӬX X4 XtX ֕ Xt ij mՌ| \ ܭ XtXՔp, t XŔ DŘ |X\. DExLLp̘*4LLp̘bLLp̘&LLp̘h.LLp̘$6LLp̘'=LLp̘SELLp̘XMLLp̘ULLp̘B` C:0 \ tt| ¤ | LLp̘VELLp̘MLLp̘nULLp̘*]LLp̘'dLLp̘SlLLp̘^tLLp̘|LLp̘փLLp̘LLp̘@NLLp̘G nf*)HB`H C onta Pub, L. No 99-570, 1007, 1008, 100 Stat 3207(1986. 10. 27.). D E @̘G onta*)B`)_ C %4  t\ tt )Ō   \ X ЌD t  | D xX(Thornburgh Bluesheet, 1989).   t D `  䲔 tX $ 5K1.1 (section)X ­ ( 4X ( T| 8T nf. \ ­ X 0 \ x \t  m ) 4X \ \ \, 0X Xեt ­D T`  ǔ t\ p \ 8T l. DE LLp̘)ƢLLp̘aLLp̘>LLp̘LLp̘LLp̘LLp̘G nf+)HB` C @onta George J, TerwilligerX Dݹ], III, 4((Acting Deputy Attorney General), m t ɐŌ, 98,  0ɕ DŘX 0@  ( [tX George J, Terwilliger Bluesheet], 1992. 2. 7. 6FSR 350(1994). D E ̘X̘( ̘G onta+)B`d CLDٳ8֕ Xnj֔ ƌ\ X  Xեt X \ p| xXՔ E ܭD \Xij] X. ƌX Q@ USSG 5K3.1D XՔ t tǔ 2003. 10. 27.0 %D  nf. ̹} Ȁ t\ ­D 0Xt, Ȑǔ 4 m 0̭ Xt \t  ̬ \(an early disposition program) 8X \\ 4Ĭ X XեtD D   nf. t\ pm@ \ t ٳH @ x (resources)D XՔ Uijx tD ©X0 t |ǀ     ̬ t(fast-track departure) D ܭYTXՔ D ճ0 t =$ t. t \ t pm@ Ȑt X 0 ( mՌ| 0` \, 28 U.S.C 2255() x8 ƥ) X Ӱ m`  ǔ X , ֬( \ ) ܭY М p­  p| (00 \ ­ @ |X ( | 0\ p t ȐŌ |\ D Ȕ t. DE@xLLp̘)4LLp̘VLLp̘&LLp̘h.LLp̘$6LLp̘+=LLp̘[ELLp̘XMLLp̘ULLp̘\LLp̘dLLp̘JHlLLp̘G nf,)HB`5 C onta USSG, App C, (Amend) 651(2003. 10. 27.). D E @̘G onta,)G nf-)HB`S C ` onta Protect Act, Pub. L. No 108-21401(m)(2)(B), 117 Stat. 650(2003. 4. 30.). D E @̘G onta-)B` C24 ̬ \X xD \ \D $XՔ |DžX ܭ(memorandum)| 2003. 9. 22. \Ԉ.  ܭ \t xx i Ȉ t| X \ t  \ 0X | ȩD LLp̘EELLp̘qMLLp̘nULLp̘*]LLp̘dLLp̘ lLLp̘Q^tLLp̘|LLp̘G nf/)HB`- C onta Senate Report, supra note 1, at 86. D E @̘G onta/)G nf0)HB` C onta 18U.S.C.3742. D E @̘G onta0)G nf1)HB` C @onta 518U.S.81(1996). D E @̘G onta1)B`C@U2003D , 4 XՔ XեtX D( X $| \ԅ. 4X \@ Xnj Xեt@  0ij \ X Koon v. United States t ӰD x<\ \. | ɸX nf. Ӱ@ tX ȕ1 ŀ| X0 \ \ 0<\  ɷX (abuse of discretion) 0D $X, mՌ, ƌ XX l<\  J@ XŔ, tD 4pt<\ Xɔ Jij] X| . 4X ǥ, t\ Ӱt @ T J@ Xեt \ mՌ| 5 X, 0| XեtX (D tnj . 4 Koon tt ȕ Xt <\ 0| lX. @ 1) tD X0 \ \ 0 X \t(de novo) | X, 2) ƌ XX <\ ų$ J@ x \ Š\ 0 XXij tD Xij] XՔ ǕD lX. \ͅ<\  @ t, Dٳ8֕@ Űt| \ \ 1\ ӰD @ XŔ ƌ Xt <\  J@ t p\ tD X. 췘,  @ t \ ¬0D \t T0. DE!փLLp̘-LLp̘YNLLp̘ LLp̘ƢLLp̘LLp̘LLp̘HLLp̘sxLLp̘4LLp̘LLp̘&LLp̘+h.LLp̘U$6LLp̘=LLp̘G nf2)HB`x@ C /ontaDٳ 4 )ɕ Lǀ tx )ɕ(The Abduction Prevention and The Child Obscenity & Pornogrphy Prevention Act of 2003). Hearing on H.R. 1004 and 1161 Before the House Subcomm. on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security, of the House Comm. on the Jduiciary, 108th Cong., 1st Sess. 38(March 11. 2003), (statement of Daniel P. Collins, Associate Deputy Attorney General, DOJ). D E @ ̘I̘( ̘ ̘NP̘G onta2)B`UC*0X |ǀ  98֐(Morris, 1997) |ǀ \ |(Berman, 1999)@,  \ mՌ| \ ¬,  ǴX ѕ(common law) YX  \ \ D t踌 \ t| X. x @ \ t Ǵ x 8D XƔp, @ mՌ X\ ¬| \   0(enforcement function) , ,  <\ X XՌ 0 ij| ‰Xij] XՔ  0t x Š\  Ǖ ǩ(lawmaking function) ij T ɔ\ <\ И  ȥ\. DEELLp̘3XMLLp̘fULLp̘\LLp̘dLLp̘HlLLp̘!tLLp̘B`5C& , ֕X Ǖ Ŭ| t, mՌ X\ ¬| ij] \ XnjX 0x @ \  ( 0X ǻ ȩtǘ T JŔ t L8 И JŌ X$ p 䲔 t UX. mՌ| \ ¬ \ ƌ\ X 0 0X ȩ Ǵ x 8 tȬXՔ 81 \ D |<ǤДp ijD . @ tX ̳D tհX  D XՔ D ճ, 0X X DՔ1t ǔ D Ux (Wilkins & Steer 1993). DE{LLp̘,|LLp̘V8LLp̘LLp̘LLp̘lLLp̘(LLp̘B`CmՌ@ X ȴ 0D 0 Ĭ X x X ijtǔ ‰`  . mՌ X\ @, ¬| X ̈́\ 0]D 0 ֕X U\ x t $ XtX . , ň, 0X 8D XΔ tǘ \ tD XՔ ij \͌\ \ս X mՌ XXՔ t. DE@ LLp̘)LLp̘W\LLp̘LLp̘LLp̘B` C0880 DE@~~̘B`C@American Bar Association. 1968. Standards Relating to Sentencing Alternatives and Procedures. AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION PROJECT ON STANDARDS FOR CRIMINAL JUSTICE. D ,^9_8g9h8k9l8w9x89898989ELLp̘NLLp̘LLp̘F@ ^^__gghhkkllwwxxB`CAmerican Bar Association. 1979. Standards Relating to Sentencing Alternatives and Procedures. AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION TASK FORCE ON SENTENCING ALTERNATIVES AND PROCEDURES. D :^9_8g9h8k9l8w9x8|9}8989898EJLLp̘R'LLp̘.LLp̘F ^^__gghhkkllwwxx||}}B`bC@ Administrative Office of the United States Courts. 1987. DIRECTOR ANNUAL REPORT. Washington, D.C. D99:8B9C8I9J8OE~6LLp̘I:>LLp̘F9::BBCCIJOB`CALLEN, FRANCIS A. 1981. THE DECLINE OF THE REHABILITATIVE IDEAL: PENAL POLICY AND SOCIAL PURPOSE, New Haven: Yale University Press. D 889898'9(8+9,8:9;8A9B8G9H8R9S8Y9Z8`EELLp̘GMLLp̘F''((++,,::;;AABBGGHHRRSSYYZZ`B`XC American Law Institute. 1962. Model Penal Code and Commentaries. Washington, D.C.: ALI. D,AEnULLp̘A*]LLp̘FAB` CBeale, Sara 1994. The New Reno Bluesheet: A little More Candor Regarding Prosecutorial Discretion, FEDERAL SENTENCING REPORTER 6:310. D,c9d8k9l8v9w8EdLLp̘IlLLp̘F@ccddkkllvvwwB`g C Becker, Gary G. 1968. Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach, JOURNAL OF POLITICAL ECONOMY 76:169. D,B9C8M9N8W9X8_E^tLLp̘J|LLp̘F@BBCCMMNNWWXX_B` CBerlin, Eric P. 1993. The Federal Sentencing Guidelines' Failure to Eliminate Sentencing Disparity: Governmental Manipulations Before Arrest, WISCONSIN LAW REVIEW 1993:187. D,989898EփLLp̘NLLp̘NLLp̘F@B` CBerman, Douglas A. 1999. A Common Law for This Age of Federal Sentencing: The Opportunity and Need for Judicial Lawmaking, STANFORD LAW & POLICY REVIEW 11:93. D,{9|8989898E LLp̘JƢLLp̘LLp̘F{{||B`zC@Blumstein, Albert(ed.). 1983. Research on Sentencing: The Search for Reform. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council. D,ME>LLp̘MLLp̘FMB` CBowman, Frank O. 1996. The Quality of Mercy Must be Restrained, and Other Lessons in Learning to Love the Federal Sentencing Guidelines, WISCONSIN LAW REVIEW 1996:679. D6989898ELLp̘JrLLp̘.LLp̘F@B` C@Braniff, William. 1993. Local Discretion, Prosecutorial Choices and the Sentencing Guidelines. FEDERAL SENTENCING REPORTER 5:309. D,_9`8g9h8r9s8zELLp̘HLLp̘F@__``gghhrrsszB`C Brooks, Karl. 2002. Sentencing Reform in Historical Context: The Progressive Vision of Sentencing Commissions. (Paper presented at the Society for History in the Federal Government Annual Conference). D,nExLLp̘M4LLp̘LLp̘FnB`CBureau of Justice Assistance. 1998. 1996 National Survey of State Sentencing Structures. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice. D$,YE&LLp̘Mh.LLp̘F$YB`eC Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1987. Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics. Washington, D.C.:DOJ. D#,OE$6LLp̘O=LLp̘F#OB` C Bureau of Prisons. 1997. PREP: Training Inmates Through Industrial Work Participation and Vocational and Apprenticeship Instruction, CORRECTIONS MANAGRMENT QUARTERLY 1. D :989898EELLp̘HXMLLp̘ULLp̘F@B` CCassell, Paul. 2004. Too Severe?: A Defense of Federal Sentencing Guidelines (and a Critique of Federal Mandatory Minimums) presented at the 2004 Stanford Law Review Symposium: Punishment and Its Purpose, REPRINTED IN STANFORD LAW REVIEW 56:1017. D ;{ 98989898E \LLp̘RdLLp̘HlLLp̘tLLp̘F{B` CEdmunds, Robert H., Jr. 1996. Analyzing the Tension Between Prosecutors and Probation Officers Over  Fact Bargaining. FEDERAL SENTECING REPORTER 8:318 D7<w9x89898E{LLp̘L|LLp̘8LLp̘F@wwxxB`{C`Federal Judicial Center. 2002. Guideline Sentencing: An Outline of Appellate Case Law on Selected Issues. Washington, D.C. D,jELLp̘MLLp̘FjB` C@Feinberg, Kenneth. 1993. Federal Criminal Sentencing Reform: Congress and the United States Sentencing Commission, WAKE FOREST LAW REVIEW 28:291. D6s9t8x9y89898 ElLLp̘N(LLp̘FssttxxyyB` C`Hofer, Paul J. & Mark Allenbaugh. 2003. The Reasons Behind the Rules: Finding and Using the Philosophy of the Federal Sentecing Guidelines, AMERICAN CRIMINAL LAW REVIEW 40(1):19. D',98989898ELLp̘FLLp̘\LLp̘F'B`y C Hoffman, Peter & James Beck. 1997. The Origins of the Federal Criminal History Score, FEDERAL SENTENCING REPORTER 9:192. D ":UV9W8^9_8i9j8qELLp̘OLLp̘F@"UVWW^^__iijjqB`lC KITTRIE, NICHOLAS. 1971. 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